The succession following the catastrophic eruption of Ksudach volcano (Kamchatka, 1907)

Grishin S.Y., del Moral R., Krestov P.V., Verkholat V.P.

В журнале Plant ecology

Год: 1996 Том: 127 Страницы: 129-153

Ksudach Volcano, southern Kamchatka Peninsula, erupted in 1907 and impacted over 2000 km(2) of forests with air-fall pumice deposits. We identified three impact zones. In Zone I, deposits deeper than 100 cm destroyed all vegetation. Two early successional stages occur, a lichen-dominated desert and isolated patches of a pioneer herb stage. Zone II is defined by pumice deposits 30 to 100 cm deep. Deposits of 70 to 100 cm destroyed all vegetation, but left scattered snags. Here primary succession dominates recovery, but its rate varies. Isolated trees survived in deposits of 30 to 70 cm and primary and secondary successional stages form a complex mosaic termed an intermediate succession. In Zone II, the primary stages found in Zone I are joined by a dwarf shrub-herb stage and a secondary birch forest stage. Zone III occurs where thinner deposits permitted some vegetation to survive in all locations. Secondary succession dominates in deposits of 10 to 30 cm. Trees suffered damage, but survived deposits of 20 to 30 cm, while other vegetation layers were eliminated. Deposits of 10 to 20 cm eliminated mosses and lichens and but only reduced the number of dwarf shrubs and herbs. Deposits of less than 10 cm damaged herb, moss and lichen layers but did not eliminate any species. All sampled vegetation remains in a pre-climax state, having yet to recover fully from earlier eruptions. Reconstructed vegetation maps for before 1907 and for ca. 1925 are compared to the map of vegetation in 1994. Based on degree of soil formation, vegetation recovery and colonization rates at different pumice depths, and the current vegetation, we estimate that full recovery of the soil-vegetation system will take more than 2000 years.

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