State of antioxidant systems and ginsenoside contents in the leaves of Panax ginseng in a natural habitat and an artificial plantation

Shkryl Y.N., Veremeychik G.N., Avramenko T.V., Makhankov V.V., Bulgakov D.V., Yugay Y., Burundukova O.L., Muzarok T.I., Bulgakov V.P., Zhuravlev Y.N.

В журнале Acta Physiologiae Plantarum

Год: 2018 Том: 40 ArticleID: 124

Native Panax ginseng Meyer plants are now quite rare in their natural environment, and thus, artificial plantations are used for commercial purposes. However, ginseng plantations are frequently exposed to abiotic and biotic stress stimuli, which can decrease biomass accumulation and cause plants to wither and die. The antioxidant systems of the plants play a vital role in their defense mechanism against adverse stresses through maintaining the balance between reactive oxygen species generation and detoxification. Here, the adaptability of wild and cultivated P. ginseng was compared with respect to the antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression, lipid peroxidation, ratio of reduced-to-oxidized glutathione, and ginsenoside content. Several new genes for antioxidant enzymes, including PgApx1, PgApx2, PgCSD2, PgCSD3, PgMSD1, PgGR1, PgPrx2, and PgPrx3, were identified, and their relative expression levels were determined together with previously characterized genes (PgCSD1, PgCat1, and PgPrx1). The relative transcription of PgMSD1 was higher in wild ginseng, whereas PgApx2 was overexpressed in cultivated plants. Expression of other antioxidant genes remained constant. The activity of superoxide dismutase, class III peroxidase, and glutathione reductase was significantly decreased in cultivated P. ginseng, whereas the activity of ascorbate peroxidase and catalase was not changed. Moreover, oxidative stress markers such as malondialdehyde concentration, the ratio of reduced-to-oxidized glutathione, and Rg-type ginsenosides content were elevated in cultivated ginseng plants. Our results indicate that P. ginseng plants grown in their natural habitat or artificial plantations have different antioxidative statuses. The process of domestication appears to have reduced the antioxidant defense system of ginseng.

DOI 10.1007/s11738-018-2699-3