Nuclear MtDNA Pseudogenes as a Source of New Variants of the MtDNA Cytochrome b Haplotypes: A Case Study of Siberian Rubythroat Luscinia calliope (Muscicapidae, Aves)

Spiridonova L.N., Valchuk O.P., Red’kin Ya.A., Kryukov A.P.

В журнале Russian Journal of Genetics

Год: 2016 Том: 52 Номер: 9 Страницы: 952-962

Sequence polymorphism of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene fragment was analyzed in 21 specimens of subspecies Luscinia calliope calliope (Pallas, 1776) and two specimens of L. c. anadyrensis (Portenko, 1939). On sequence chromatograms, in 19 specimens of L. c. calliope, double peaks of heteroplasmy type in the taxon-specific positions were revealed. Moreover, two clone variants were identified. The first variant was the calliope mitochondrial cyt b gene and the second was the nuclear cyt b pseudogene, similar to the mitochondrial haplotype anadyrensis-camtschatkensis. In L. c. anadyrensis, four clone variants, represented by the mitochondrial calliope and anadyrensis-camtschatkensis cyt b genes and nuclear calliope and sachalinensis cyt b pseudogenes, were identified. Some nuclear cyt b pseudogenes were highly similar (98–99%) to the mitochondrial genes of the subspecies L. c. anadyrensis, L. c. camtschatkensis, and L. c. sachalinensis. In the same time, the majority of nuclear pseudogene sequences were characterized by a high level of polymorphism, caused by nonsynonymous substitutions (up to five substitutions per sequence), the presence of indels in some of the clones, and TAA and TGA stop codons. In our opinion, the mitochondrial haplotypes anadyrensis-camtschatkensis and sachalinensis occurred as a result of intergenomic homologous recombination. This finding provides a new insight into the colonization history of the northeastern part of the range by L. calliope, according to which populating the territory of Chukotka, Kamchatka, and Sakhalin took place at different times and along the independent pathways.

DOI 10.1134/S1022795416090131