A. S. Lelej and P.G. Nemkov

Phylogeny, evolution and classification of Mutillidae (Hymenoptera).

Number: 46, Pages: 1 - 24

Phylogenetic analysis of fifteen higher taxa (subfamilies and tribes) with hypothetical ancestor as outgroup reveal the relationships: Ancestor + [Myrmosinae + (Kudakrumiinae + {Pseudophotopsidinae + (Ticoplinae + [{Rhopalomutillinae + [(Ephutinae + Dasylabrinae) + Sphaeropthalminae]} + (Myrmillinae + Mutillinae)])})]. A tree generated from fifteen higher taxa and hypothetical ancestor based on 71 “best” from 89 analysed characters by PAUP yielded a length of 196 steps, CI of 0.62, RI of 0.81 and HI of 0.38. The family Mutillidae divided into ten subfamilies. The morphological evolution of Mutillidae related with loss of freely articulated pronotum and formation of mesosomal lorica in female, reduction of eye pubescense, moving of venation to the wing base, formation of RS2 vein in forewing, strength of hamuli system of wings, formation and complication of metasomal felt lines in both sexes, shorten of gastral sternum 7 in male. Among the family the lower mutillids (Myrmosinae, Kudakrumiinae, Pseudophotopsidinae, Ticoplinae) and higher mutillids with two branches [(Myrmillinae + Mutillinae) + (Rhopalomutillinae + Dasylabrinae + Ephutinae + Sphaeropthalminae)] are separated. The classification of 224 described genera and subgenera in subfamilies and tribes is given. New classification of Ephutinae (Odontomutillini + Ephutini) and Mutillinae (Mutillini + Trogaspidiini + Petersenidiini, stat. n. + Smicromyrmini) is proposed.

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